ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 4 (45)

Parameters,’ are the limits within which something can be done.

Examples:

  • The parameters of the project are too narrow.
  • We are limited in what we can do on the website because the coding is quite old and it naturally sets the parameterswithin which we have to work.
  • Children are allowed to question their teachers, but only within certain parameters.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
parallel universe, parallel to, parallel with
parameters related to, parameters of, parameters for
phase in, phase out
prediction about, predict that, predictable outcome, make a prediction
principal reason

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

IELTS VOCABULARY

ACADEMIC WORD LIST 45

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word.

  1. Train lines are a classic example of things that are______________ to one another. (parallel, principal)
  2. Many conflicting _______________are being made about the impact of climate change. (principal, predict)
  3. When writing an academic paper, there are several _______________ that need to be considered. (parameter, parallel)
  4. The _______________ reason for the education reforms is the high student absence rates. (phase, principal)
  5. The new education reforms are being _______________ in over the next three years. (parameter, phase)

Answers (in the wrong order below)
4. principal   5. phased   3. parameters    1. parallel    2. predictions

SPEAKING TIPS

Did you know that 25% of your mark in the speaking test is for FLUENCY? You can make your language sound more fluent by using fillers. Fillers are little words, sounds or phrases that give you a moment to think. If you use them correctly, your English sounds more natural and more fluent.

Examiner: Tell me about your home town.
You: Wellll, um, let me see. I grew up in Melbourne in Australia. My home was in the inner suburbs and it was, and still is, a hub for transport and shopping. I remember …

In that example, three fillers have been strung together. It gives the speaker a moment to think, and it is quite a natural thing to do. Other options could be:
1. Um, my hometown. Let me see.
2. Wellllll, my hometown was quite large, but in the area where I lived everyone knew eachother when I was child. Today, it is quite different, …

In the first example above, the speaker has used a filler, then has repeated part of the question and then added another filler. It’s a good strategy.
Why are there so many llllllls on ‘well’ in the second example? Welllll, that’s because we often stretch out that final sound as an indication that we are thinking.

You should practice using fillers like these in your speaking. They give you time to think and they make your English sound more natural. (But, don’t overuse them … don’t say ummm, ahhh and then leave a long silence.)

speaking fillers

ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 4 (43)

A ‘mechanism,’ is a system that enables something to work or to happen.

Examples:

  • The mechanisms for making decisions in my workplace is very autocratic.  
  • I have an old grandfather clock, but I can’t get the mechanism to work properly.
  • We don’t really understand the mechanisms of the brain, it is all a mystery to us.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
internal investigation, internal aspect
investigation of, an investigation into, to investigate something, investigative reporting
job satisfaction
to label something, labeling of
a mechanism for, a mechanism to, mechanistic approach

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Listening: Listen to the sounds of the words.
CLICK  to watch video version of today’s vocab.
AWL43BTHUMB

IELTS vocabulary

ACADEMIC ENGLISH 43

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word.

  1. Her new _______________ involves a lot of travel. (job, investigate)
  2. There will be an_______________ into the increasing violence on the subway system. (investigate, job)
  3. People are often unfairly _______________because of their colour, race or religion. (label, internal)
  4. When she was eight years old, her art teacher told her that she had no talent. She ______________ that and until she was about 30 she believed she had no creativity. (mechanism, internal)
  5. I can’t use this phone very well. What’s the  _______________ for changing the ring tone? (label, mechanism)

Answers (in the wrong order below)
5. mechanism    1. job     2. investigation     4 internalised    3. labelled

LISTENING (Advanced)

Listen to this ted talk by Raymond Wang, a 17 year old student and inventor. As you listen, answer the IELTS-style questions.

(This is an advanced listening exercise and is actually more difficult than IELTS because the speaker speaks quickly. If you catch 50% of the answers, you are doing well! The answers are below.
Note that when you have finished the exercise you can view it on Youtube  and if you scroll down a little on the Youtube page and click ‘interactive script,’  you can read while you listen again. )

Fill each space with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND / OR A NUMBER.

How Germs Travel on Planes & How We Can Stop Them

CURRENT SITUATION
  • Three billion people travel by plane each year.
  • Raymond became interested during the Ebola outbreak.
  • One person with H1N1 spread disease to 17 people.
  • One person with SARS spread disease to 22 people.
  • Air is circulated via inlets and outlets in the main cabin.
  • (1) _______________ percent of pathogens are eliminated near outlets.
  • One person sneezes and the sneeze is swirled around multiple times
COMPUTER SIMULATIONS
  • 2D drawings were put into 3D modelling software
  • computer told where the air goes in and out of the cabin
  • a bunch of (2) _______________ is thrown in
  • calculations made
SOLUTION
  • Raymond conducted more than 32 different simulations and created a (3) _______________.
  • The new device reduces pathogen transmission by (4) _______________ times and increase fresh air inhalation.
  • The device is easy to install with just a couple of (5) _______________.
  • The system works effectively regardless of whether the middle, window or (6) _______________ seat passenger sneezes.
COSTS OF DISEASE 
  • SARS cost the world (7) $_______________.
  • A future disease could cost the world more than $3 trillion.
FUTURE OF THE INVENTION
  • Could be installed overnight, but first it needs to go through certification,
  • (8)_______________ and various regulatory processes.
ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
  • Sometimes the best solutions are the (9) _______________.
  • This solution couldn’t have occurred two years ago because it wouldn’t have been supported by available technology.
  • Now is the golden era for (10) _______________ .

ANSWERS

  1. 99.7 (if you included the % sign or the word ‘percent,’ your answer is wrong because that information has already been provided.)
  2. physics
  3. solutions / global inlet director (both answers are correct, but if you wrote them both, your answer is wrong, because you have too many words)
  4. 55 (this one was hard to catch because you were probably still thinking about the previous one)
  5. screws
  6. aisle (if you wrote ‘aisle seat,’ it is wrong because the word ‘seat’ has already been provided.
  7. 40 billion (if you wrote’dollars’ it is wrong because the $ symbol has already been provided
  8. flight testing
  9. simplest
  10. innovation

NOTE:
If you have an incorrect spelling, your answer is wrong.
If you have a different word with the same meaning, the answer is wrong. You must write the words you hear.

ACADEMIC WORD LIST – SUBLIST 4 (42)

If someone or something is ‘implicated,’ it is believed to be involved or to be guilty. Another meaning can be ‘the results or effects’ of something.

Examples:

  • Consumption of dairy products is implicated in the rise of allergies in young people today.
  • Alex lost his job because he was implicated in a robbery that took place at his office.
  • The implications of the new tax are not clear yet.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
hypothesis relating to, hypothetical situation
implementation of
implications of, implicated in
imposition of, impose on
integration of, integrate with

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

IELTS Vocabulary

ACADEMIC WORD LIST 42

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word.

  1. The _______________ of the change in management are not clear yet. (integrate, implicate)
  2. We invited them to stay with us for a few days, but they’ve been here for two months. It’s quite an _______________   (impose, implicate)
  3. Their _______________ is that if the rich get richer, the poor will also get rich.  (hypothesis, implementation)
  4. What is the best way to _______________  the two systems?  (impose, integrate)
  5. Has the school   ______________ the new absence policies yet?(hypothesis, implemented)

Answers (in the wrong order below)
4. integrate   2. imposition   1. implications   5. implemented    3. hypothesis

ACADEMIC WORD LIST – SUBLIST 4 (41)

Hence‘ is and adverb and is quite a formal word. It is often used in essays and is generally used at the start of a sentence. It has two meanings. Firstly it can mean ‘because’ or ‘for this reason.’ This is the meaning that we see in essays. The second meaning is ‘from now.’ With this meaning it doesn’t come at the start of a sentence.

Examples:

  • Public transport is excellent and there are many safe bike paths in this city. Hence car ownership is low.
  • I’ll be on a plane travelling to Majorca ten days hence.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
error rate
ethnicity of, ethnic cleansing
goal oriented
get a grant, give a grant, receive a grant, grant for, granting body

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

IELTS Vocabulary

ACADEMIC WORD LIST 41

Complete the sentences below with the correct form of the word.

  1. What are your _______________ for the rest of this year? (goal, ethnic)
  2. Is it human or mechanical ______________ that is responsible for most aviation accidents?(hence, error)
  3. He’ll be on leave for three months; _______________ we will need to replace him with a temp. (hence, goal)
  4. A person’s _______________ can have a large influence on their life options. (grant, ethnic)
  5. A lot of research relies on _______________from government and industry. (grant, error)

Answers (in the wrong order below)
3. hence   1. goals   4. ethnicity    2. error    5. grants

ACADEMIC WORD LIST – SUBLIST 4 (40)

If something ‘emerges‘ it comes out from somewhere.

  • She emerged from behind the curtain.
  • The sun emerged from behind the clouds.
  • I think she will emerge as the winner after the debate.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
a debate about, to debate an issue
despite this
two dimensional, three dimensional
domestic market , domestic help
emergence of, emerge from, emerge as, emerging markets

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

IELTS Vocabulary

ACADEMIC WORD LIST 40

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word.

  1. Cats were probably the first animals to be_______________. (emerge, domestic)
  2. When problems aren’t addressed adequately in the beginning, they tend to _______________. (domestic, emerge)
  3. Many social issues in society are up for ______________. (debate, despite)
  4. He did well in the test _______________ not having studied very hard. (dimension, despite)
  5. Three_______________ shapes can be hard to draw. (dimension, debate)

Answers (in the wrong order below)
2. re-emerge   5. dimensional    4. despite    3. debate    1. domesticated