When you ‘cite‘ something, you refer to it or quote it exactly. In an academic context it also means to give credit to the original author. It was first used with its current meaning about 500 years ago.
- Alexandra cited around 80 sources in her last essay.
- We could cite poverty and despair as the reasons for so much unhappiness in many societies today.
- We need to have at least seven citations in our English essay this week.
Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
capable of, capability to, incapable of
cooperate with, cooperate by, work cooperatively, cooperation of
discriminate by, discriminate against, anti-discrimination laws
display of, display poor behaviour
Note that different collocations can have quite different meanings. They are not always alternatives.
Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).
Complete the sentences below with the correct form of the word.
- Jack isn’t fully qualified, but he is quite ______________ of looking after the accounts for the business. (capable / capability / capacity)
- The lecturer likes to see at least six _______________ in every essay. (citations / cite / citings)
- The prisoner was most _______________ ? (cooperating / uncooperative / cooperatively)
- Many groups today claim to be _______________ against. (discrimination / discriminating / discriminated / indescriminate)
- Four examples were _______________ on the whiteboard. (display / displaying / displayed)
Answers (in the wrong order below)
5. displayed 3. uncooperative 2. citations 1. capable 4. discriminated
MATCH THE WORDS
There are 40 questions in the real test and there are several different kinds of questions. You must read the instructions carefully. This short listening exercise involves MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS.
THINGS TO NOTE:
- In the real test you will only hear the text and each question one time.
- Each question is worth one mark.
- The questions will be in the same order as the listening text. So first you will hear the answer to question one. The answer for question two will come after that. The answer for question three will come next and so on.
- In the real test you will have 30 seconds before the recording starts. Use that time to read the questions and think about possible answers. If you know what to expect, it will help you to locate the answer.
Listen and choose the correct letter, A, B or C.
1. Number or hours worked in a day
A. up to one hour
B. up to 4 hours
C. up to 8 hours
2. The number of hours involved in making a guitar can depend on
A. the number of mistakes made
B. the client’s requirements
C. the type of wood used
3. The top of the guitar has to be
A. thick and heavy
B. without too much vibration
C. strong and light
4. Chladni patterns are used to
A. restrict vibration
B. tune the top
C. decorate the upper surface
If you missed an answer, you should guess it. If you write A, B or C, you have a chance of getting the question right! 1b, 2a, 3c, 4b. How many did you get right? 4/4?
A lot of English learners mix up adjectives ending in ED and ING. The meaning can be quite different.
I’m bored. (= I am not interested / entertained.)
I’m boring. (= other people are not interested or entertained when they listen to me.)
Adjectives ending in -ed show what has happened to a person or thing.
Adjectives ending in -ing show the effect which something has on a person or thing.
Example: If you meet someone who makes you laugh then he is amusing. You are always amused when you speak to him.
Compare the difference:
- My girlfriend is bored. – (My girlfriend feels bored)
- My girlfriend is boring. – (My girlfriend is a boring person)
- I am confused. – (I don’t understand something)
- I am confusing. – (I will cause you to be confused)
-ed / -ing adjectives:
This information is from: http://languagelearningbase.com/85633/adjectives-ending-in-ed-and-ing?state=showcomments-85633&show=85633#p85633