ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 5 (60)

Featured Word:
Whereas’ is a conjunction used to contrast two things . It is used in both spoken and written English but is more common in written English.

Examples:

  • Whereas dogs are friendly and seek attention, cats are independent.
  • During the 1960s the fashion was for short skirts, whereas in the 1970s women often wore floor length dresses.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
transition from, transition to, transitional arrangements
current trend, trend away from, trend towards, trending now
version of, version for, another version of

welfare of, child welfare, welfare policy, welfare of
whereas x/y, x whereas y (see sentence structure comments above)

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic word list 60

Vocabulary for IELTS – Academic Word List 60

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word. (eg. you may need to change a word from a noun to an adjective or from a singular to a plural.)

  1. The current  _______________ in education is to cater to individual learning styles.  (trend, version)
  2. The  _______________ from childhood to adulthood has been extended by the increase in years of education and by the lack of jobs. (trend, transition)
  3. People today seem to be more concerned about money than they do about the ______________ of the old, the young and those in need. (whereas, welfare)
  4. There are several different  _______________ of this product. (version, transition)
  5. I want to save for a house,  _______________ my husband wants to save for a grand holiday. (welfarewhereas)

Answers (in the wrong order)
5. whereas   1. trend   2.transition   3. welfare    4. versions

ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 5 (59)

Featured Word:
Substitute’ can be either a verb or a noun.
As a verb it means to change one thing for another or to put one thing in place of another. (The recipe calls for spinach; I think I’ll substitute silverbeet.)
As a noun it refers to thing that has been exchanged. (Silverbeet is a good substitute for spinach in many recipes.)

Examples:

  • Our usual teacher was absent on Wednesday, so we had a substitute teacher.
  • If the product is out of stock, the company will provide you with a substitute of equal value.
  • A lot of mathematics involves substituting one value for another.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
style icon, with style, latest style,
serve as a substitute, substitute for, substitute for, provide a susbtitute
sustained effort, hard to sustain, sustain by

symbolic of, symbolise by, symbolise with, symbolic of
target of, targeted by, targeted with

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic word list 59

Vocabulary for IELTS – Academic Word List 59

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word. (eg. you may need to change a word from a noun to an adjective or from a singular to a plural.)

  1. Teaching takes a lot of effort. It is hard to   _______________ the energy sometimes. (sustain, substitute)
  2. When considering your workload, it is very useful to set annual, monthly and weekly  _______________. (style, target)
  3. Many businesses have some kind of icon or _______________ that is immediately recognised by members of the public . (target, symbol)
  4. I don’t following recipes exactly when I cook. I usually end up  _______________ ingredients. (substitute, sustain)
  5. I visited a friend’s house the other day and was surprised to find that it was built in the same  _______________ as my own house. (symbol, style)

Answers (in the wrong order)
5. style   1. sustain  2.targets   3. symbol    4. substituting

ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 5, (58)

Featured Word:
If something is ‘stable’ there is not much movement.  This is the adjective form of the word.
It  can be used as noun, but this has a completely different meaning; as a noun it is a house or room for horses. (Horses are often kept in stables.)

Examples:

  • The patient is in a stable condition after surgery.
  • Employers are often looking for a stable work history.
  • The country has had four leaders in two years; it lacks stability.
  • The Sultan of Brunei has hundreds of magnificent horses in the stables at the Polo Club.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
pursue your dreams, pursuant to
ratio of, in direct ratio to, improve the ratio, have a ratio
emphatically reject, rejection of, rejected because, a reject

revenue stream, annual revenue, boost revenue, loss of revenue, a source of revenue
stable economy, perfectly stable, relatively stable, financially stable, greater stability

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic Word List 58

Vocabulary for IELTS – Academic Word List 58

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word. (eg. you may need to change a word from a noun to an adjective or from a singular to a plural.).

  1. The CEO  _______________the executive’s proposal during the last board meeting. (ratio, reject)
  2.   _______________ has increased threefold in the last five year period. (revenue, stable)
  3. Women in this occupation outnumber men by a _______________ of three to one. (reject, ratio)
  4. There has been a long period of  _______________ since the current leader came to power. (revenue, stable)
  5. Ideally children should be free to  _______________ their dreams. (pursue, stable)

Answers (in the wrong order)
5. pursue   1. rejected   2. revenue   3. ratio    4. stability

ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 5 (57)

Featured Word:
Precise’ means exact. It can be used in the same way as ‘exact’ in a sentence in its verb and its adverb form.
Can you tell me the exact time the message arrived? /
Can you tell me the precise time the message arrived?

A difference is that ‘precise’ has a noun form (precision) whereas ‘exact’ doesn’t.

Examples:

  • In some contexts it is quite important to be precise in your choice of words.
  • The offer expires at precisely 3pm on Tuesday the 5th.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
orientation to, oriented by, oriental art
perspective on, perspective related to, perspective about
precision of, precision in, precise measurements, precisely correct

prime of life, prime real estate, prime position, to prime someone
psychology lesson, psychological condition, psyched by, psyched out

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic Word List 57

IELTS Vocabulary 57

Complete the sentences below with the correct form of the word.

  1. When you start a new job you need to  _______________ yourself to the new environment? (orientation, orient)
  2. His _______________ on the issue will be quite interesting because he was involved in the decision-making. (perspective, perspectives)
  3. In the Year 12 maths exam, you don’t always need to be _______________; it is sometimes more important that you demonstrate understanding of the principles. (preciselyprecise)
  4. A  _______________ reason for the drop in female participation in engineering courses is the male-dominated culture . (primes, prime)
  5. Police officers and soldiers may both suffer from  _______________ damage that is referred to as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. (psychologypsychological)

Answers (in the wrong order)
5. psychological   1. orient   2. perspective   3. precise    4. prime

ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 5 (56)

Featured Word:
A ‘Notion’ is a belief or an idea. It can also be a vague understanding or an impression of something. You may have ‘no notion’ about something – meaning you have ‘no idea.’

Examples:

  • The notion of ‘progress’ has different meanings to different people.
  • The notion that women can’t be leaders has held many talented women back over several generations.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
modify by, can mofidy, can be modified
computer monitor, to monitor someone’s behaviour
a network of, to network
notion of, notions about
objective for, objective measures, objectively argue, objectively demonstrate

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic Word List 56

IELTS Vocabulary 56

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word. (eg. you may need to change a word from a noun to an adjective or from a singular to a plural.)

  1. If you have  _______________ on your car, your insurance premium is likely to be a lot higher.  (network, modify)
  2. What are your  _______________ for your current course of study? (objective, modify)
  3. Jonathan has all kinds of crazy _______________ about how to maximise interest on investments. (notion, objective)
  4. To be successful in business, it is useful to have a wide _______________ of contacts in a range of fields. (monitor, network)
  5. The work performance of most employees is   _______________ in some way. (monitor, notion)

Answers (in the wrong order)
5. monitored   1. modifications   2. objectives   3. notions    4. network

ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 5 (54)

Fundamental’ means central or most basic.  It comes from the Latin word ‘fundamentum’ which means ‘foundation.’

Examples:

  • Honesty, conscience and equity should be fundamental principles of any society.
  • Communism and facism are fundamentally different approaches to organising a society.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
fundamental mistake, fundamental principles, fundamentally different
to generate a result, to generate an error, generation of electricity
generation gap, intergenerational report, generational differences

image of, image in
a liberal helping, a liberal sprinkling, a liberal attitude, liberal politics, apply liberally

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic Word List 54

Academic Word List 54

Complete the sentences below with the correct form of the word. You MAY need to change the form of the word too (eg. liberal –> liberally / generation –> generations).

  1. She adds  _______________ amounts of salt to her cooking? (liberal, generate)
  2. Paul was haunted by the  _______________ of children crying while bombs dropped around them. (liberal, image)
  3. The company made some  ______________ changes which meant that their training department expanded by several positions. (fundamental, generate)
  4. Each  _______________ has different norms related to modesty and manners. (generation, generate)
  5. The company undertook a huge advertising campaign to   _______________ interest in their new products. (generate, fundamental)

Answers (in the wrong order)
5. generate   1. liberal   2. image/images   3. fundamental    4. generation

Academic Word List, Sublist 4 (48)

Undertake,’ means to take responsibility for a job or task. The word ‘undertaker’ has quite a different meaning. An ‘undertaker’ is a person whose job involves arranging bodies and burying or cremating people who have died. Originally, 800 years ago ‘undertake’ meant ‘to trap,’ but the meaning now has settled on ‘taking responsibility for a job or a task.’ The noun is ‘undertaking’ and it means the job or task that someone is doing.

Examples:

  • Starting a new business is risky and is a huge undertaking.
  • Starting out on a Ph.D is a huge undertaking.
  • She decided to undertake the huge task of getting a Ph.D.
    * note that ‘huge’ and ‘undertake’ often appear in the same sentence!

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
stressed about, stress out, stress factors
subsequent movie

sum up, sum of
summary of
undertake a task

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic Word List Gp 48Vocabulary for IELTS – Academic Word List 48

Complete the sentences below with the correct form of the word.

  1. How would you _______________ up your point of view? (sum, stress)
  2. She is quite ______________ about starting her new job. (stress, subsequent)
  3. It is quite a dangerous _______________. (sum, undertake)
  4. Her first exam results were very good and her _______________ exam results were even better. (summary, subsequent)
  5. I only saw the _______________, but it made the article seem quite interesting. (summary, undertake)

Answers (in the wrong order)
3. undertaking   1. sum   4. subsequent    2. stressed   5. summary

ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 4 (46)

Promote,’ comes from the Latin meaning ‘to move forward.’ Today there are three meanings that are all related to this. Firstly, it can mean to get a higher position in the workplace. The second meaning is to help sell something. And a third meaning is that you can promote a point of view.

Examples:

  • Sarah was promoted to Head of Department.
  • Coca-cola and Pepsi are so well known because they do a lot of promotion of their products.
  • Mr Baldwin keeps trying to promote his view for a new economy, but no-one is interested.
  • Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
    prior engagement, prior meeting, prior to
    professional conduct
    project manager, projection for, projection of

    promotion of, promotion for, promotional material, promoted to, promoted by
    regime changeCheck the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic Word List 46Vocabulary for IELTS – Academic Word List 46

Complete the sentences below with the correct words and the correct form of the word.

  1. Have you seen the _______________material for the new Star Wars movie? (regime, promote)
  2. The teaching _______________ is highly respected in many countries. (promote, profession)
  3. _______________ losses for this year are alarming. (project, prior)
  4. He was given the job because he has ______________ experience in the area.prior, project)
  5. There have been several _______________ changes and a lot of upheaval in that part of the world in the last few years. (regime, profession)

Answers (in the wrong order)
5. regime   3. Projected   2. profession    4. prior    1. promotional