Grammar – Adjectives with ED / ING

A lot of English learners mix up adjectives ending in ED and ING. The meaning can be quite different.
I’m bored. (= I am not interested / entertained.)
I’m boring. (= other people are not interested or entertained when they listen to me.)

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Adjectives ending in -ed show what has happened to a person or thing.
Adjectives ending in -ing show the effect which something has on a person or thing.

Example: If you meet someone who makes you laugh then he is amusing. You are always amused when you speak to him.

Compare the difference:

  • My girlfriend is bored. – (My girlfriend feels bored)
  • My girlfriend is boring. – (My girlfriend is a boring person)
  • I am confused. – (I don’t understand something)
  • I am confusing. – (I will cause you to be confused)

-ed / -ing adjectives:

This information is from: http://languagelearningbase.com/85633/adjectives-ending-in-ed-and-ing?state=showcomments-85633&show=85633#p85633

GRAMMAR MISTAKES

mistakesOOPS! PICK THE MISTAKE. 

There are mistakes in all of these sentences. Can you rewrite each sentence correctly?

  1. A few people smoke these days.
  2. She likes little sugar in her tea.
  3. I live in the near of Melbourne.
  4. For two years ago I lived in Sicily.
  5. She was in the bus when the explosion happened.

Corrected sentences. 
a. Few people smoke these days.
A FEW and FEW have quite different meanings.
‘A few’ is used as a positive. It means some, but not many. 
‘Few’ is used more as a negative. It emphasises that something is unusual. 
b. She likes a little sugar in her tea.
A LITTLE and LITTLE work the same way as ‘a few’ and ‘few.’
‘A little’ is used more as a positive. It means some, but not much.  
‘Little’ is used more as a negative.
eg.
There is little cake left after the children have visited. (= the children ate most of the cake. There’s not much left.)
There’s a little cake left. (= there is some cake left)
c. I live near Melbourne.
(We cannot say ‘in the near of’ in English.)
d. I lived in Sicily for two years. OR I lived in Sicily two years ago.
(The meaning of the original sentence is quite unclear. The listener doesn’t know if the speaker is talking about how long they were there for – 2 years – eg. 1988 – 1990. OR if the speaker means that it happened two years ago; eg. If it is 2016 now, the speaker was there in 2014.) So in this case the words ‘for’ and ‘ago’ must be used correctly.
FOR – duration
AGO – point of time in the past 

e. She was on the bus when the explosion happened.
(Change the preposition to ‘on’.)
Generally we use ‘in’ for transport that is relatively small, but which we can be ‘inside’. If we can stand up on it, we tend to use ‘on.’ (on the bus, on the plane, on the ship) 

ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 5 (60)

Featured Word:
Whereas’ is a conjunction used to contrast two things . It is used in both spoken and written English but is more common in written English.

Examples:

  • Whereas dogs are friendly and seek attention, cats are independent.
  • During the 1960s the fashion was for short skirts, whereas in the 1970s women often wore floor length dresses.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
transition from, transition to, transitional arrangements
current trend, trend away from, trend towards, trending now
version of, version for, another version of

welfare of, child welfare, welfare policy, welfare of
whereas x/y, x whereas y (see sentence structure comments above)

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic word list 60

Vocabulary for IELTS – Academic Word List 60

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word. (eg. you may need to change a word from a noun to an adjective or from a singular to a plural.)

  1. The current  _______________ in education is to cater to individual learning styles.  (trend, version)
  2. The  _______________ from childhood to adulthood has been extended by the increase in years of education and by the lack of jobs. (trend, transition)
  3. People today seem to be more concerned about money than they do about the ______________ of the old, the young and those in need. (whereas, welfare)
  4. There are several different  _______________ of this product. (version, transition)
  5. I want to save for a house,  _______________ my husband wants to save for a grand holiday. (welfarewhereas)

Answers (in the wrong order)
5. whereas   1. trend   2.transition   3. welfare    4. versions

Vocabulary – Synonyms

MATCH THE WORDS
On the left is a random group of words from sublist 4 of the Academic Word List.
On the right is a list of synonyms for those words.
Can you match each word to its synonym?

1  prior A  yearly
2  error B  focus
3  subsequent C  mistake
4  sum D  within the family or country
5  undertake E  total
6  label F  do
7  annual G  next
8  concentrate H  enough
9  adequate earlier
10  domestic J  name

ANSWER
1i, 2c, 3g, 4e, 5f, 6j, 7a, 8b, 9h, 10d

ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 5 (59)

Featured Word:
Substitute’ can be either a verb or a noun.
As a verb it means to change one thing for another or to put one thing in place of another. (The recipe calls for spinach; I think I’ll substitute silverbeet.)
As a noun it refers to thing that has been exchanged. (Silverbeet is a good substitute for spinach in many recipes.)

Examples:

  • Our usual teacher was absent on Wednesday, so we had a substitute teacher.
  • If the product is out of stock, the company will provide you with a substitute of equal value.
  • A lot of mathematics involves substituting one value for another.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
style icon, with style, latest style,
serve as a substitute, substitute for, substitute for, provide a susbtitute
sustained effort, hard to sustain, sustain by

symbolic of, symbolise by, symbolise with, symbolic of
target of, targeted by, targeted with

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic word list 59

Vocabulary for IELTS – Academic Word List 59

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word. (eg. you may need to change a word from a noun to an adjective or from a singular to a plural.)

  1. Teaching takes a lot of effort. It is hard to   _______________ the energy sometimes. (sustain, substitute)
  2. When considering your workload, it is very useful to set annual, monthly and weekly  _______________. (style, target)
  3. Many businesses have some kind of icon or _______________ that is immediately recognised by members of the public . (target, symbol)
  4. I don’t following recipes exactly when I cook. I usually end up  _______________ ingredients. (substitute, sustain)
  5. I visited a friend’s house the other day and was surprised to find that it was built in the same  _______________ as my own house. (symbol, style)

Answers (in the wrong order)
5. style   1. sustain  2.targets   3. symbol    4. substituting

GRAMMAR MISTAKES

mistakesOOPS! PICK THE MISTAKE. 

There are mistakes in all of these sentences. Can you rewrite each sentence correctly?

  1. Yesterday I stay to home to watch some movie.
  2. Last week he is getting a new job.
  3. Your dress, I like it.
  4. I see kangaroo yesterday.
  5. Erin did not say where did she buy her book.

Corrected sentences. 
a. Yesterday I stayed home to watch some movies.
There were several errors. Yesterday is past, so the verb needs to be past (stayed). We ‘stay home’ not ‘stay to home’ and finally ‘some’ suggests that there is more than one, so the noun needs to be plural. 
b. Last week he got a new job.
Last week is past and finished so the verb needs to be in the simple past. (got)
c. I like your dress.
It is not strictly incorrect to use the original sentence (Your dress, I like it.), but it is unusual. The more standard form is ‘I like your dress.’ 
d. I saw a kangaroo yesterday. / I saw kangaroos yesterday.
Again this is a tense error. ‘Yesterday’ is past and the action has been completed, so the verb needs to be in the simple past (saw). There is also a problem with the noun. It needs to be clearly marked as either singular or plural  (a kangaroo OR kangaroos).
e. Erin did not say where she bought the book. / Erin did not say where she had bought the book.
‘Where’ is often used as question word and thus is frequently followed by ‘did;’ however, in this context, it is not a question and ‘did’ is not used. 

ACADEMIC WORD LIST, SUBLIST 5, (58)

Featured Word:
If something is ‘stable’ there is not much movement.  This is the adjective form of the word.
It  can be used as noun, but this has a completely different meaning; as a noun it is a house or room for horses. (Horses are often kept in stables.)

Examples:

  • The patient is in a stable condition after surgery.
  • Employers are often looking for a stable work history.
  • The country has had four leaders in two years; it lacks stability.
  • The Sultan of Brunei has hundreds of magnificent horses in the stables at the Polo Club.

Collocations: When you learn new vocab, make sure that you note collocations too. For this group of words some collocations are:
pursue your dreams, pursuant to
ratio of, in direct ratio to, improve the ratio, have a ratio
emphatically reject, rejection of, rejected because, a reject

revenue stream, annual revenue, boost revenue, loss of revenue, a source of revenue
stable economy, perfectly stable, relatively stable, financially stable, greater stability

Check the meanings of the words if you don’t already know them. Check the meanings of the various forms as sometimes they are different. You can check them at Time4english by clicking the words (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/lounge/awl.asp).

Academic Word List 58

Vocabulary for IELTS – Academic Word List 58

Complete the sentences below with the correct word and the correct form of the word. (eg. you may need to change a word from a noun to an adjective or from a singular to a plural.).

  1. The CEO  _______________the executive’s proposal during the last board meeting. (ratio, reject)
  2.   _______________ has increased threefold in the last five year period. (revenue, stable)
  3. Women in this occupation outnumber men by a _______________ of three to one. (reject, ratio)
  4. There has been a long period of  _______________ since the current leader came to power. (revenue, stable)
  5. Ideally children should be free to  _______________ their dreams. (pursue, stable)

Answers (in the wrong order)
5. pursue   1. rejected   2. revenue   3. ratio    4. stability